The TOSCA-S Ontology: A Pattern-based Semantic Lifting of TOSCA

The SODALITE ontology provides abstractions for applications and infrastructures that belong to the Cloud Computing, HPC or Edge Computing domain. Namely, it describes Resource Models and Abstract Application Deployment Models (AADMs) which are pattern instantiations of the resources. The ontology is based on the TOSCA standard (Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications), an OASIS language to describe a topology of cloud based web services, their components, relationships, and the processes that manage them.

For achieving a better degree of knowledge sharing, reuse and interoperability, the knowledge is captured by using the SODALITE Ontology Design Pattern (ODP). The figure below represents this ODP:

This figure below depicts an excerpt of a custom resource node type as a knowledge graph, named sodalite.node.DockerHost. The node type is captured as a situation and description instance. The sodalite.node.DockerHost is a Situation and has a description consisting of concepts such as properties, attributes, interfaces and capabilities .Also, we can note that the punning capabilities of OWL2, as sodalite.node.DockerHost is both a class and an instance, since it is related with rdfs:subClassOf and the property assertion soda:hasContext.

For developing and deploying the ontology we relied on the following tools:

  • TopBraid Composer– Ontology Development Environment – free edition
  • GraphDB for locally hosting test versions of the ontology;
  • SPARQL served as the semantic query language for submitting queries to the ontology and running rules on top of the model;


Apache License 2.0


  • Georgios Meditskos, Zoe Vasileiou, Anastasios Karakostas, Stefanos Vrochidis and Ioannis Kompatsiaris, A Pattern-based Semantic Lifting of Cloud and HPC Applications using OWL 2 Meta-modelling, In 4th Special Session on High Performance Services Computing and Internet Technologies (HPCS 2020)
  • Indika Kumara, Zoe Vasileiou, Georgios Meditskos, Damian A. Tamburri, Willem-Jan Van Den Heuvel, Anastasios Karakostas, Stefanos Vrochidis, Ioannis Kompatsiaris, Towards Semantic Detection of Smells in Cloud Infrastructure Code, In 10th International Conference on Web Intelligence, Mining and Semantics (WIMS 2020)
  • Jesús Gorroñogoitia, Zoe Vasileiou, Emilio Imperiali, Indika Kumara, Dragan Radolović, Georgios Meditskos, A Smart Development Environment for Infrastructure as Code, In First Workshop on Trustworthy Software and Open Source (SWForumWorkshop 2021), Accepted for publication

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